Essential fatty acids are important in the production of hormones in the body, including FSH. Essential fatty acids include omega-6, omega-9 and omega-3.
The foods that provide the body with omega -3 are fish oil and flax oil and oily fish (salmon, trout, mackerel, sardines, herring and anchovies). Women are encouraged to eat at least two servings of oily fish per week to increase the level of omega -3 in the body.
A good source of omega-6 are borage oils (which can be taken in supplement form), while good sources of omega-9 include avocados, sunflower oils, nuts and seeds.
Hormone replacement therapy must be monitored carefully. Women on estrogen therapy who have an intact uterus should receive progesterone therapy to prevent endometrial hyperplasia, and they should have yearly breast examinations and mammograms as indicated. Patients should have yearly Papanicolaou tests (Pap smears). If vaginal bleeding occurs while on therapy, an endometrial biopsy and/or dilation and curettage should be considered to determine the presence of endometrial cancer. Men on testosterone replacement therapy should have yearly prostate-specific antigen tests and regular rectal examinations to monitor for prostate carcinoma.
Medical treatment in patients with abnormal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) depends on the underlying etiology. In men with primary (testes) or secondary (pituitary) hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy is administered, either intramuscularly or with patches or gel.