The results of the tests for IgG, IgA, and IgM levels are usually evaluated together. Abnormal test results typically indicate that there is something affecting the immune system and suggest the need for further testing. Quantitative immunoglobulins testing is not diagnostic but can be a strong indicator of a disease or condition. There are a number of conditions that are associated with increased and decreased immunoglobulins.
Increased polyclonal immunoglobulins may be seen with a variety of conditions. Monoclonal immunoglobulins are seen in blood cell tumors that involve lymphocytes or plasma cells. In these disorders, there is typically a marked increase in one class of immunoglobulin and a decrease in the other two classes. Although affected people may have an increase in total immunoglobulins, they are actually immunocompromised because most of the immunolglobulins produced are abnormal and do not contribute to the immune response.Inherited immune deficiencies are rare and are often referred to as primary immunodeficiencies. They may affect the production of all immunoglobulins, a single class, or one or more subclasses. Some of these disorders include agammaglobulinemia, common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), x-linked agammaglobulinemia, ataxia telangiectasia, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, hyper-IgM syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).
In CSF, immunoglobulins normally are present in very low concentrations. Increases may be seen, for example, with central nervous system infections (meningitis, encephalitis), inflammatory conditions, and multiple sclerosis.
Decreases in salivary IgA may be seen in those with recurrent respiratory infections.
Brucellosis is prevented by pasteurizing milk, eradicating infection from herds and flocks, and observing safety precautions (protective clothing and laboratory containment). The disease is treated with doxycycline, streptomycin and rifampin.
Individuals who are occupationally exposed can be protected to some extent by wearing impermeable clothing, rubber boots, gloves and face masks and by practicing good personal hygiene. Pasteurization of milk for drinking and for incorporation into other dairy products is effective in protecting consumers. No widely accepted vaccines for humans have been developed but progress in the understanding of brucellar epitopes and of immunology could change this.
However, eradication of brucellosis from domestic animals reduces dramatically the threat to humans and has been successful in several countries. In eradication campaigns, the level of enzootic disease can first be reduced by intensive use of live, attenuated vaccines (B abortus strain 19 in cattle, B melitensis strain Rev. 1 for sheep and goats) particularly in immature animals. Thereafter, the emphasis shifts to the detection of infected herds (by skin tests in sheep; serologic tests on milk or blood samples taken at sale or slaughter in cattle) and individual animals (by serologic tests) and to the elimination of the latter by slaughter.
Humans are treated with combinations of antibiotics for from 4 to 6 weeks. Doxycycline and rifampin form the basis, with cotrimoxazole replacing doxycycline in children, but fewer relapses are reported with regimens including two weeks of daily streptomycin. Azithromycin has shown promising results in experimental models.
Test Method 1 : If your doctor suspects you have brucellosis, you'll need to provide a blood sample to be analyzed.
This isn't a complicated procedure, and shouldn't cause any severe pain or discomfort. Your doctor will insert a needle into a vein and collect a small amount of blood in a vial. It will then be analyzed in the lab. The test usually used to analyze your blood is called a Brucella agglutination test.